Η ιδέα του κοσμοπολιτισμού κατά τον Δημόκριτον

 

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2001 (EN)
Η ιδέα του κοσμοπολιτισμού κατά τον Δημόκριτον

Δελλής, Ιωάννης Γ.

In this paper we showed that the political idea of cosmopolitism appears in Democritus' philosophy before the Cynics and Stoics philosophers present it in a more systematic and elaborated way. According to Democritus' belief on democracy (fr. 251) each man has two main qualities, that one of the «individual» who takes care of his personal affairs and of the «citizen» who takes a serious interest and participates actively in public affairs. People are equal (frs. 164 and 158, test. 99) since Democritus believes that wealth and poverty cannot stand as a criterion that gives them the opportunity to communicate as equal ones and constitute a social union. In fr. 247 «ανδρί σοφώ πάσα γη βατή· ψυχής γαρ αγαθής πατρίς ο ξύμπας κόσμος», which Η. Diels associates to that Thucydides refers to in his Funeral Speech (2.43), Democritus underscores that each man, owner of a virtuous soul, can visit whichever country he chooses to, since his culture and education allow him a successful communication and cooperation. Democritus' belief on the idea of cosmopolitism is indirectly stated by way of other concepts discovered in the fragments. In fr. 255 the notions of «concord» (omonoia) and «charity» (philanthropia) become the most basic principles for human unity, the ones that lead people to «happiness» (.eudaimonia) and «harmony». The idea of property can be realized if wealthy and powerful citizens help poor and weak ones. This kind of social behavior contributes to the creation of «familiarity» and leads to «progress» (fr. 250) and «political friendship». Thus a feeling of brootherhood grows among citizens (fr. 107a). The existence of the idea of cosmopolitism in Democritus is also confirmed by another argument that springs from Democritus' belief on the natural resemblance of the atoms. The atoms can give birth to everything when they are combined (test. 38 and 99). People mutatis mutandis are similar and that' s why they constitute a union altogether. Finally in this paper we discussed the reasons that led Democritus to believe in the unity among people. The most important reason was the outset for the idea of an «open society», which had already appeared and at the same time the declining notion for the secluded city-state. This «open society» would wipe out this division of people in «Greeks» and «barbarians». We also showed that it was Democritus who first of all conceived the idea of the ancient enlightment

Επετηρίδα

Κοσμοπολιτισμός
Γενική Φιλοσοφία
Δημόκριτος


2001

Text

Greek
English



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