Αντιθέσεις και υπερβάσεις της ελευθερίας κατά τον Antonio Rosmini (1797 - 1858)
Μαργαρίτου-Αδριανέση , Ελένη
Freedom, as a Rosminian metaphysical principle, precedes will, but sensation, perception and knowledge of the truth and the good, and the «informed willingness» to chose and utilize the cognitive experience precede the free consent. Free will (unconditional freedom) is not intentional; on the contrary, freedom is the driving force in the instrumental acting/trying to «hit a target» and concerns the principle of choice (reason and will). It is obviously a logically sufficient condition of operative capacity for choice (to perform a voluntary act). The terms freedom/liberty are used with several meanings, sometimes in the literal sense, sometimes in a strict sens e,: free from fear, desire and violence; liberty of conscience/of speech/of the press; freedom of religion/ religious tolerance. Moral law, considered as part of natural law, is founded on reason and secures individual liberty and free-enterprise system. Moral liberty can be realized as an agent΄s achieving mastery over himself with respect to laws, so that man choses to put something to good use. The term «causality of the creation» is to refer to the universal and intelligible order of truth; the term «voluntary act», to a form of higher operation of the rational soul, produced by special creation when man as mind, soul and body, is sufficiently developed to receive and transfer God΄s grace. God establishes man as a creator in his own image. Man΄s reason and will preserve the forms of his freedom in the world.