The present article is a critical exposition of the Aristotelian theory of motion in its essential aspects and necessary development. Aristotle’s definition of motion in terms of potentiality and actuality is at first analyzed, and the correspondence of its specificity with the general attitude of intuitional – speculative thought is indicated. The Aristotelian considerations of the nature of the dynamical relations is next considered. The latter have the form of an asymmetrical, linear dependence (action), and not that of mutual action and inter – determination (interaction). This clearly shows the theory’s intimate connection with immediate experience where human action is the prevailing factor. The uni – directional character of the kinetic relation, entails an absolute distinction between mover and moved. The latter distinction implies, by abstraction, the principle of inertia and the vacuum, which are then rejected on the basis of their contrariety with phenomena. The specificity of intuitional – speculative thought is here manifest. This distinction also implies, by extension, the theory of the first mover. Finally, Aristotle’s explanation of physical translation in its immediacy is exposed, as the realization process of the inherent in bodies kinetic principle, of gravity and levity. The dynamical character of the Aristotelian law of translational motion is then clarified, and its historical limitations are indicated.