Η συμφιλίωση του πνεύματος και χθονός κατά τον Heidegger
Martin Heiddegger΄s philosophical thought is deeply influenced by the ancient Greek philosophical tradition which, however, he strives to surpass. The center of M. Heidegger΄s thought and its source, at the same time, is the absent essential, i.e. the Being. The human existence is the superior, distinguished presence of this Essential. With his calculating intelligence, man starts a continuous cognitive exchange with the world; with his reflectional thought he endeavours to approach the Essential, the Being. However, a reasonal conception and interpretation of the Being is difficult and, not seldom, is wrecked. This failure, nevertheless, shows another way, the immediate experience of the Being which is to reveal in a rare and blessed moment as well. This moment is remote and indeterminable sometimes. One may expect it during his whole life, because the «profound God dislikes the untimely revelation», as Hölderlin says. What is here substantial is the right attitude and the prudent persistence. This means that expecting it man is possessed by the Being which he possesses at the same time. A fundamental Ontology, therefore, cannot but be analytical of the human existence with no moralistic invocations. In the human existence the world of the intellect is reconciled with the world of the earth. The noblest and the most sublime expression of this relation is erected by means of art and, particularly, by means of poetry: a philosophizing poetry or a poetical philo-sophy. The artist and the philosopher have the mission to balance the two elements: the intellect and the earth, the «Nature». Therefore, art and philosophical thought can both be regarded as fruits of the same root, which is the «poetical» creative action.