Αλήθεια και δομή των επιστημονικών θεωριών

 

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Αλήθεια και δομή των επιστημονικών θεωριών

Μαρκάκης, Μ.

Scientific theory is a symbolic representation of experience, as it is formulated in an integrated set of inductively related empirical generalisations, lawful ones in their content, and whose validity level is subjected to control and verification, i.e. in the possibility of their rejection by the scientific research. The relationship of scientific statements among themsel¬ves is a relationship of induction. In the extent to which a theory has been fully formalized in a completely articulated inductive system (such as calculus) no specific meanings are being attached to its definitions and its terms. On the other hand, inductive formalization and deductive (or statistical) formalization represent the two major processes to express the predictive and explanatory power of the theory. In the axiomatic theory (or the theory of the inductive type) definiens (which is a primitive term) and definiendum could be mutually substituted without the truth of the terms to be changed. On the other hand, a vocabulary context of a clearly defined logical structure describes, in particular, the rules of the inductive conclu¬sion. There is no scientific rule pertaining in particular to the vocabulary of a theory which could provide an acceptable introduction method of the new terms in the scientific language. In the domain of social sciences, the attempt to axiomatize the theory of Durkheim is being subjected to examination, while, on the other hand, Max Weber΄s ideal-typical interpretation of culture presents serious limitations, especially in terms of its causal efficacy to predict and explain events. The theoretical statement does include the empirical proposition, while with the logical induction of empirical proposi¬tions the control of truth is possible. By providing to the theory more chances to be rejected, and the theory resists, the predictive power of the theory and its truth increases. Simplicity and aesthetic form are predicatives of a theory, while, on the other hand, the pragmatical application of a theory is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for its approval which can take place for grounds independent from the theory itself. On the other hand, truth itself does not play a crucial role as a condition of theory΄s acceptance. Generally speaking, a theory is true if it corresponds to reality, while the theory itself must present a degree of cohesion with the universe of knowledge. Descriptive simplicity refers to the description itself, while inductive simplicity refers to that which is being described.

Επετηρίδα

Επιστημονική θεωρία
Δομή
Συστηματική Φιλοσοφία
Αλήθεια


1989-1990

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